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Learn 15 CMD commands that every Windows user should know in 2020

Microsoft has cleverly placed Command Line next to the default Windows interface. Although CMD is considered an old, relatively unnecessary text-based tool, it's still not without reason for Microsoft to do so.

However, there are still CMD commands that are still in use, even with new features added to Windows 8. In this article, we'll look at some of the commands you'll need as a Windows user.


Most files in Windows are associated with a specific software, meaning that for each file type, a software is assigned to run the files by default. Sometimes remembering these connections can be a little confusing. As a reminder, you can use the "assoc" command to display a complete list of the types of files and software associated with it.

You can also use this command to change the software associated with a particular format. For example, by using the phrase “assoc.txt =” you can change the software for opening text files to a custom software that you enter after the equal sign. The ASSOC command also specifies both the file format name and the software name, which will help you use it correctly.


Deleting files on the hard drive will not completely erase them. Instead, the files will be inaccessible and the space they occupy will be shown to you as free space. These files can be recovered as long as they are replaced with new data.
However, the Cipher command can clear it by writing random data on a specific path, that is, it will completely erase the files that you deleted but are still on disk. For example, to clean the C drive, you can use the "cipher / w: c" command. This command does not apply to deleted files, so your essential files will not be deleted using this command.



Drivers are one of the most important software installed on a PC. Improper configuration or removal can cause a variety of problems, so it would be great if we could access the list of all drivers installed on the PC. This is exactly what the driverquery command does for you. You can also expand this command to "driverquery -v" to show you more information, such as the driver installation path.

File Compare

This command can be used to identify differences between two text files and will be very useful for writers and programmers who want to make small changes between two different versions of a file. To use, type "fc" and then enter the path and name of the files you want to compare.


You can also expand this command in different ways. Using "/ b", only binary outputs are compared. Using “\ c”, the type of text is overlooked in comparison, and using “/ l”, only ASCII texts are compared in two posts.


So, for example, by writing the following command, ASCII texts will be compared in two posts with the specified addresses:

“Fc / l“ C: \ Program Files ( x86 ) \ example1. doc ”“ C: \ Program Files ( x86 ) \ example2. doc ”  



This command will display the current IP address that the computer is using. However, if your computer is connected to a router (like most current computers), you will receive a local router network address instead.


However, ipconfig can still be useful. Using the "ipconfig / release" command after the "ipconfig / renew" command can force Windows to request a new IP. You can also use the "ipconfig / flushdns" command to refresh your DNS address.


Entering the "netstat -an" command will show you a list of open ports and their IP Addresses.
You can also see what position the port is in: Listening, Established, or Closed. You can use this command to identify devices that are connected to a PC. You can also use this command to specify suspicious connections if you suspect viruses or trojans.



Sometimes you need to know whether data packets are exchanged between a specific device on the network or not. This is where ping can be useful. By typing "ping" and then an IP address or Web Domain, a number of data packets are sent experimentally to the specified address. If the data reaches that address and then returns, you can see that the device is communicating properly with your PC, but if this sending and receiving is not successful, it becomes clear that something is preventing the connection between your device and your computer.

This command is a more advanced version of the Ping command. This command will be useful when there are multiple routers between your PC and the device you want to test. Like Ping, you can use this command by typing "pathping" and then the IP address you want. Routing also gives you more information about the route and data transmission.



The "tracert" command is similar to pathping. To use, enter the phrase "tracert" and then the IP address or domain you want to track. It will then display complete information about each step taken (such as passing routers) on the path between your PC and the destination. Also, the tracert command measures the amount of jump time between different servers or devices (in milliseconds).

Powercfg is a very powerful command that you can use to track and manage how your computer uses energy. You can manage Hibernate operations by entering "powercfg / hibernate on" and "powercfg / hibernate off". With “powercfg / a” you can see the different energy storage modes on your PC.


Another application is "powercfg / devicequery s1_supported", which displays a list of devices connected to a computer that have the ability to standby while connected (Connected Standby).
The "powercfg / lastwake" command indicates which device last took your PC out of Sleep mode.

You can also use the "powercfg / energy" command to create an accurate report of your PC's power consumption. The path to save this report is displayed after the operation.
In Windows 8, a new extension has been added for this command. By entering the command "powercfg / batteryreport", you will be given a detailed analysis of battery consumption. The output of this analysis, which is normally stored in the Windows User path, includes information about the time and amount of charge and discharge cycles, average battery life, and battery capacity estimation.


in Windows 8 and 8.1 There is now a Shutdown command that turns off the computer as its name implies. Of course, you might think that despite the Shutdown button, which is easily accessible, this is an additional command. But don't forget that by typing "shutdown / r / o", your computer will restart, and after restarting, the Advanced Start Options menu will appear, where you can access Safe Mode and Windows Recovery tools.


System File Checker
System File Checker is an automated scanning and repair tool that focuses on Windows system files. To use this command, you must first run CMD under Administrator and then enter the command "sfc / scannow". If a corrupted or lost file is detected in the scan, it will be automatically replaced with previous, healthier copies of the same file that is stored by Windows for this purpose.

Recovery Image

Most computers running Windows 8 or 8.1 come with a Recovery Image from the factory, but that Image may have Bloatware, so you don't want to use it again. After uninstalling it, you can create another image using the "recimg" command. Remember that you must run CMD under Administrator to use this command. By entering this command, a complete description of how to use it is displayed.


The tasklist command can show you a list of all the tasks running on your PC at that moment. Of course, with Task Manager, this command may seem a bit extra, but sometimes it shows Tasks that are hidden in the Task Manager and are not displayed.

The "tasklist-svc" command displays the services for each task, and the "tasklist -v" command provides you with more details about each task. You can also use the tasklist -m command to identify dll files associated with active tasks.


Tasks that are displayed using the "tasklist" command have an executable file and a Process ID (a 4-digit number) associated with them. You can prevent a program from running and close it by entering the "taskkill -im" command, followed by the name of the executable file, or the "taskkill -pid" command, followed by the desired Process ID number. Again, with Task Manager, this section may not be very useful, but you may be able to use it to close some running applications.

The conclusion of this article does not cover all existing CMD commands. In fact, if we consider their variables, we can say that there are hundreds of different commands, most of which are no longer useful, because they have been replaced by different menus and options in the Windows user interface (GUI), or they are not very useful

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